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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.8 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 LOCATION OF THE STUDY
3.3 SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION
3.4 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.5 SAMPLE SIZE
3.6 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION5.1 SUMMARY
1.1 Background of the Study
World Tourism Organization (WTO, 2000) describes tourism as the temporary movement of people to destinations outside their normal place of residence, for more than 24 hours with no intention of remunerations from point en-route the destination. Tourism according to Mckean (1997) is defined as “a profound widely shared human desire to know others with the reciprocal possibility that we may come to know ourselves, a quest or an odyssey to see and perhaps to understand the whole inhabited earth.” Jafari (1997) defined tourism as “a study of man away from his usual habitat of the industry which responds to his needs and the impact that both he and the industry have on the host socio-cultural and physical environment”. Microsoft Encarta 2009 (DVD) describes tourism as a travel to benefit from a particular service or activity that is unavailable at home. According to the British Tourist Authority’s definition, “Tourism is a stay of one or more nights away from home for holidays, visitation to friends or relatives, business conferences or any other purpose except such things as boarding education or semi-permanent employment”.(Marketing Fact Book, 2003). Following the same trend, Falade (2003), defined tourism as any activity that voluntarily or temporarily takes a person from his usual place of residence, in order to satisfy a need of pleasure, excitement, experience and relaxation. Tourism sector according to David Diaz Benavides (2001) is probably the only services sector that provides concrete and qualified trading opportunities for all nations, regardless of their level of development. According to him, the sector also provides an uneven distribution of benefits, which is threatening the social, economic and environmental sustainability of tourism in some developing countries (Benavides 2001). Tourism has become a major source of economic development and diversification for many developing countries. Tourism for Nigeria is yet to become a channel of employment creation, income generation and revenue mobilization for a country with over 170 million people. Although, the developed countries account for a higher proportion of global tourism, and many developing countries are beginning to take advantage of the huge opportunities offered by tourism. (Ayeni & Ebohon 2012) Nevertheless, this is only possible among the countries that have all it takes to promote tourism. The huge advantages in tourism can be achieve with the availability of natural, manmade, cultural, and enhancing infrastructure supporting the growth and development of tourism in the country. Most developing countries like Nigeria for example practice mono economy, which means the country generate bulk of her foreign exchange from a particular economic product “crude oil”. However, many of these countries are beginning to see the importance of tourism and the needs for economic diversification. Nigeria has always being known as a petroleum exporting country, she is one of the largest producers of petroleum. And the country’s main stay is crude oil. However, the country has decided to join the trial to diversify her economy from the production of crude oil in other to create more employment opportunities and to generate more foreign income. (Ayeni & Ebohon 2012 According to the United Nation World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) forecasts, it is stated that international tourist arrivals will experience an increase of 3% to 4% in 2013, this forecast is so much in line with its 2030 long term forecast: +3.8% a year on average between 2010 and 2020.This report is confirmed by the UNWTO Confidence Index. This report was Compiled among over 300 experts worldwide, the Index shows that prospects for 2013 are similar to the evaluation of last year 124 points for 2013 against 122 for 2012. Which in turns implies that by region, prospects for 2013 are much more stronger than that of 2012, for Asia and the Pacific +5% to +6%, followed by Africa +4% to +6%, the Americas +3% to +4%, Europe +2% to +3% and the Middle East 0% to +5%(UNWTO 2013).
However, in the figure above Africa region showed a growth rate of (+6%) in the number of international arrivals, it is observed that there is high concentration of international tourist arrivals in both the north and south of the continent. These two regions recovered well from there setback in 2011 when arrivals decreased by 1% as a result of the negative return from North Africa. International arrivals reached a new record (52 million) as a result of rebound in North Africa (+9% as compared to a 9% decreased in 2011) while Sub-Saharan destination continue its growth (+5%). Results in the Middle Eastshows (-5%) which implies there is an improvement after a 7% decrease in 2011, still the region recorded approximately 3 million international tourist arrivals less in 2012 in spite of the clear recovery in Egypt. (UNWTO 2013).
1.2 Statement of the problem
Despite the fact that tourism is important to any nation, the problems associated with tourism are quite enormous. For example Osun state, being one of the most respected state in the Yoruba land, has attracted millions of people to the area for business, leisure and other purposes. This resulted in the state being over congested during the holidays. The infrastructural facilities such as good road network and parking space are not enough to meet the demand tourist. The problem of pollution is one of the vital issues in contention. The solid waste disposal by the residents and visitors has posed a potential environmental problem in the area and also made the coastal region unattractive. Flooding is also a major problem in Nigeria. Though this problem rarely occurs, it is one of the problems that discourage tourist in Nigeria. Finally, the political will on the side of the government is not appreciable. Government is not paying adequate attention to tourism and this constitutes a major setback to the development of tourism along in Osun state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objectives of this study is to find out the role of tourism and cultural festival in Nigeria; specifically the study intends to
1. Find out the impact of tourism and cultural festival on economic growth and development in Nigeria
2. To identify the problems and challenges of tourism in Nigeria
3. To examine the necessary factors needed for the development and sustenance of tourism industry in Nigeria.
4. To suggest ways of improving tourism in Nigeria
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated from the objectives to guide this study
1. What are the impact of tourism and cultural festival on economic growth and development in Nigeria
2. What are the problems and challenges of tourism in Nigeria
3. What are the necessary factors needed for the development and sustenance of tourism industry in Nigeria.
4. What are the ways of improving of tourism in Nigeria
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will help in providing necessary information needed for the development and sustainability of tourism industry in Nigeria. It will be of benefit to the investors, the organized private sector, public sector and academic environment.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research work will focus mainly on the development of tourism in Nigeria, the benefit of tourism to the development of Nigeria economy. The research work will cover people in Oshogbo Osun state.
1.7 Limitation of the study
The challenge of finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study.
However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Tourism: the commercial organization and operation of holidays and visits to places of interest.
Cultural festival: An occasion for feasting or celebration, especially a day or time of religious significance that recurs at regular intervals
Development: an event constituting a new stage in a changing situation.