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1.0.Background of Study
The 2020 Corona Virus Disease (COVID) outbreak remains unprecedented both in the number of cases, deaths and geographic scope. The outbreak affected 210 Countries and Territories around the world have reported a total of 2,219,164 confirmed cases of the coronavirus COVID-19 that originated from Wuhan, China, and a death toll of 149,884 deaths as at 17th April, 2020. The COVID 19 was imported into Nigeria by an Italian businessman diplomat who arrived via Murtala Mohammed Airport Lagos on February, 2020. He was identified as being unwell when he got to his Ewekoro destination and rushed into a private hospital in Lagos where the diagnosis of COVID 19 was made on the third day. Millions of Nigerians were thrown into panic on February, 2020 when the first case of COVID 19 was confirmed in Lagos. On that same day, The Federal Ministry of Health in collaboration with the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), declared a COVID 19 emergency in Nigeria. With an estimated population of over 182 million people, Nigeria which is located in West Africa is the populous country in Africa characterized by a high degree of population movement across her borders. This high level of travel promotes the easy spread of infectious diseases. Given that the COVID 19 outbreak which began in December 2019 in China and had rapidly spread to Europe, and then Africa, the risk of further spread to Nigeria was high. The unmitigated spread of COVID 19 across West African countries was promoted by the fact that these countries had never experienced a COVID 19 outbreak and were poorly prepared for this unfamiliar disease at every level. The index COVID 19 patient in Nigeria wasn’t a fatal case but from this index case, the disease quickly spread to involve 19 laboratory-confirmed COVID 19 cases and one probable case in two states. The World Health Organization (WHO) went on to declare COVID 19 a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). This situation bears some similarity to the very recent Zika virus outbreak which has also been declared a PHEIC with the hope that this declaration will facilitate the mobilization of resources and promote a coordinated response to the growing threat. Arguably, the lessons learnt from the COVID 19 outbreak have accelerated the worldwide response to the Zika virus which is the first mosquito borne virus to be declared a PHEIC. Thirteen of the confirmed cases of COVID 19 in Nigeria eventually died (case fatality rate of 42.1%) and more than hundred were nursed back to good health. Despite the resounding success of the COVID 19 control efforts in Nigeria, details of how this was achieved are yet to be fully chronicled, hence this research.
1.1. Statement of Problem
The Corona Virus Disease (COVD) outbreak in West Africa was unprecedented in spread and its attendant response. There were over 15,000 confirmed cases and over 9,000 suspected cases. The response to the outbreak was massive within Africa and beyond. The outbreak in Nigeria affected lots of people and led to 21 deaths (CFR 37%). There were more than 891 contacts of these cases under surveillance as of 23rd March, 2020.
Nationwide there was targeted preparedness to prevent and control COVID 19. This led to the formation of a presidential task force and the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) to prevent and control COVID in Lagos and the country as a whole. This research is aimed at investigating the role of the Nigerian government to the corona virus pandemic.
The primary purpose of the review was to assess the role and response of the government to prevent and control COVID 19 in Nigeria. Other specific objectives include;
1. To identify the role of the government in Multimodal communication strategies deployed to reach the general population to facilitate sensitization during the pandemic
2. To Investigate the role of government in community enlightenment prior to the outbreak.
3. To identify the impact of contact tracing on reducing the spread of a new Corona virus during the pandemic
4. To identify the impact of monetary incentives to the less privilege and families of the dead were provided during the pandemic
1.3. Research Questions
1. How does Multimodal communication strategies help the government to facilitate sensitization during the pandemic?
2. What is the effectiveness of community enlightenment prior to the outbreak?
3. What are the impacts of contact tracing on reducing the spread of a new Corona virus during the pandemic?
1.4. Scope of study
This study is delimited to Nigeria. The study also, considers variables such as gender of nationals , tribe, religious affiliation, and age
1.5.Significance of Study
This study will examine the role and response of the government to prevent and control COVID 19 in Nigeria. Recommendation that will promote sustainable development will be made based on the findings of this study. The findings in this study will be of immense importance in many ways.To the national policy makers in the global houses of parliament, necessary solutions mapped out would help the country and religious leaders to get back to their feet in the face of economic crisis.
1.6.Definition of Terms
Mass gatherings: Mass gatherings are events attended by a sufficient number of people to strain the planning and response resources of the host community, state/province, nation, or region where it is being held
Social gathering: Social gathering is a gathering of people who have been invited by a host for the purposes of socializing, conversation, recreation, or as part of a festival or other commemoration of a special occasion
Religious gathering: Religious gathering is a gathering of people who are gathered in religious houses to worship
Virus: A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea
Pandemic: A pandemic is a disease epidemic that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple continents, or worldwide. A widespread endemic disease with a stable number of infected people is not a pandemic. Further, flu pandemics generally exclude recurrences of seasonal flu.
Epidemic: An epidemic is the rapid spread of disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. For example, in meningococcal infections, an attack rate in excess of 15 cases per 100,000 people for two consecutive weeks is considered an epidemic
COVID-19: Corona Virus Disease 2019
Polymerase Chain Reaction: Polymerase chain reaction is a medical test widely used in molecular biology to rapidly make millions to billions of copies of a specific DNA sample allowing scientists to take a very small sample of DNA and amplify it to a large enough amount to study in detail