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ABSTRACT

The study investigated into terrorism and its effect on the educational sector in Northern Nigeria. The study had some specific which include; to examine the major factors that are responsible for terrorism.to examine and compare the level of education in other parts of Nigeria to that of Northern Nigeria.to examine the challenges of terrorism to Nigeria has country.to examine the effects of terrorism on the educational sector in Northern, Nigeria.

The study also entailed some conceptual clarification of what is terrorism, types of terrorism and causes of terrorism in Nigeria. The theoretical background of the study is the conflict theory and the relational vengeance theory. The study also entails some empirical justification. The causes and effect of terrorism in Northern Nigeria, the concept of education was detailed in the study alongside. The agencies and policies put in place to curb terrorism, the challenges and prospects in curbing terrorism in curbing terrorism in Nigeria.

The study concluded that that all Northern elite and government should aid the propellant of education in their region so has to stop the increase in terrorism act due to the large percentage of illiteracy within their geographical territory.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1-            BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

 Nigeria, a country with a population of over 180 million people, with over 250 ethnic groups and three major religions, and being said to be the giant of Africa has had her fair share of terrorism. Consequently, the rate of terrorism has been alarmingly high. Ranging from the insurgences to those craving for another country named Biafra, to the Boko Haram group to the Niger Delta militants, and the most recent, the Fulani herdsmen, these are the major ones that citizens hear of on daily basis forgetting that kidnapping, child trafficking, abuse and labor also have a great percentage it contributes to the deterring factors to the effect of terrorism and educational sector in Northern Nigeria.

One major problem that has faced Nigeria is the issue of terrorism. Terrorism in the widest form can be said to be purposefully using a method of violence deficient in discrimination, to bring fear or terror to its victims, to achieve different aims; political, religious, financial, social etc. “It is the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim’’ Fortna (2015).  They are the ones that go about oppressing innocent people with the use of violence and coercion.

Terrorism did not just begin; it has its roots in old political movements. It has been traced by Gupta (2008) to the plot hatched in1605 by a group of provincial English Catholics to kill King James 1 of England, his family and the most of the protestant aristocracy. Those that conspired against the King of England, tried to smuggle gunpowder inside the House of Parliaments with the plan to blow the place while the King was having meeting in the house. They also made plans to kidnap the children of the royalties. This action led to Edward Coke, the Chief Justice of Common Pleas referring to the act as “the reign of terror” (La Terreur) and this led to the  term of ‘terrorism’.

            Terrorism has affected so and in different parts of the many aspects of the country such; socio-economic aspects, security and has also affected the development of the country at large but more specifically it has threatens the educational sectors in Northern part of Nigeria. Terrorism in the Northern part of Nigeria has placed grave threats to the educational sector, especially at primary and social level, for instance, the dreadful abduction of the Chibok girls perpetuated by the popular Boko Haram terrorist group. The Boko Haram terrorist group has placed serious threats to the lives of people especially in the north. This group sees Western Education, the Western culture and Westernization in general as something that is not permitted and in fulfilling their beliefs; the Boko Haram has done so much destruction to the government, its properties, to the weak and defenseless citizens. `the Boko Haram terrorist groups have attacked schools, nurning them down, the group has kidnapped school children and have also terrorized the teachers and those that are in charge of the school’s administration.

1.2-            STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Over the past years, terrorism has proven to be one of the major problems that have threatened the educational sector in Northern Nigeria, has terrorist groups like the Boko Haram group have on various occasions attacked and burnt down schools making it impossible for them to learn The rise in terrorism has led to the loss of lives and properties.  The causes of terrorism can be subsumed under four broad classifications which are psychological factors, political, economic and socio-cultural factors. Ogundiyan and Amzat(2008:174). The Boko Haram group not only destroyed schools and try to eradicate education, they have also made their victims to be perpetrators of terrorist activities.  The Boko Haram terrorist groups went about destroying and harassing stake holders of education and enforcing the rejection of Western education. In 2012 they gradually started to burn down schools or any place meant for educational gatherings especially at night and after school hours. After some time they progressed and started to target and kill students, teachers and even parents of the student. They stopped at nothing to destroy education, and by 2015 the National Union of Teachers had it on record that they had lost over 600 school teachers to the various insurgencies. Doyin Adebusuyi(2015)

The Niger Delta goup is another militant group that has also affected Nigeria, with them demanding for increasing in the benefits that come from the Nigeria petrol business. Wilson (2006).

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

The main objective of the study is to examine how terrorism has immensely affected the educational sector in the Northern part of Nigeria.  Other objectives include;

·         To examine the major factors that are responsible for terrorism

·         To examine and compare the level of education in other parts of Nigeria to that of Northern Nigeria.

·         To examine the challenges of terrorism to Nigeria has country

·         To examine the effects of terrorism on the educational sector in Northern, Nigeria.

       1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This research sets to provide answers to the question listed and such questions include:

·         What are the factors responsible for terrorism?

·         What is the level of education in Northern Nigeria, compared to other part of the country?

·         What are the challenges Nigeria face with terrorism?

·         What effects does terrorism have on the educational sector in Northern Nigeria?

   1.5 Research Hypothesis

H0=   Terrorism has no significant effect on the educational sector in Northern Nigeria

H1=   Terrorism has significant effect on the educational sector in Northern Nigeria

 1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The issue of terrorism and how it affects education in the Northern part of Nigeria is one matter that affects everyone either directly or indirectly. This study is useful because it points out the various ways in which terrorism has affected Nigeria as a whole country, as it has led to the loss of so many lives and properties. There would also be major focus on the drastic effects terrorism has on the educational sector in the Northern region of Nigeria. This study would be useful to the government of Nigeria and Northern leaders as it would serve as a guideline on how to eradicate terrorism and provide a safe environment for the people of the society. This study would also be useful to the youths as it would enlighten them on the importance of education and how it can help to curb indiscipline, intolerance and majorly criminal activities. This research was carried out because of the increasing number of events where terrorist have harassed, terrorized and placed a threat on the educational sector. Their activities are spreading widely and faster, so this research should be carried out before things get out of hand and they become extremely uncontrollable.

1.7 METHODOLOGY

This research will be making use of the qualitative research method, in which the researcher will use both the primary and secondary sources of data. The primary source will be questionnaire and interview on the effect of terrorism on the education. The secondary sources include journals, articles, newspaper and books. Under books the researcher will be reviewing hard cover books, e-books and online library books

1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study analyses how terrorism has threatened the educational sector in northern Nigeria., in this study there would be a broad analysis of various forms of terrorism , the threats it possess on education in the north. This research study would be focusing on events that have occurred in Borno and Kaduna states, within the period of 2010-2018.

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

1.      TERRORISM: According to Richardson, (2006), terrorism is an attractive strategy for small organizations that wants to attract attention to provoke the government to intimidate the opponents, appeal for sympathy, impress an audience or maintain the adherence of the faithful.

2.      EDUCATION: According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary, Education is the act of process of imparting knowledge or skills to another. It is the understanding and information gained from being educated. The word education comes from the Latin word e-ducre which means “to lead out”.

3.      EDUCATIONAL SECTOR: this is a group of institutions whose primary purpose is to provide education to children and young people in the educational settings. It involves a wide range of people. These institutions might vary according to different contexts.


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