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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY  

Crime is an inevitable phenomenon in human existence because human beings are hedonistic in nature (pleasure seeking in nature). The rate at which teenagers and youths in the society commit crime cannot be overemphasized. Crime in schools is one of the most disturbing societal problems in the society today. The crime does not affect only the offender, victim or witness but it affects societal growth and stability at large. 

A crime is an act committed or omitted, in violation of a public law, either forbidding or commanding it; a breach or violation of some public right or duty due to whole community, considered as a community. In its social aggregate capacity, as distinguished from a civil injury. (Wilkins v. u. s).

Crime is again defined as an intentional act or omission in violation of criminal law, statutory, case law committed without defense or justification and sanctioned by the state as a felony or misdemeanor. (Paul Tappan 1947)

Crime and criminal behavior is hard to define. This is due to the varying norms and ideologies in different societies, what is seen as a crime in a society will be part of the norms of another. A United Nations research institute observed that:

 Crime, in the sense of a breach of legal prohibition, is a universal concept, but what actually constitutes a crime and how seriously it should be regarded, varies enormously from one society to another. Perceptions of crime are not determined by any objective indicator of the degree of injury or damage but by cultural values and power relations.

Various means have been provided to reduce the criminal behaviors amongst youth and various resources have been directed at developing various means of reducing criminal behaviors amongst students. Such means includes payment of fine, community service, rehabilitation, juvenile prison just to mention a few. But these various means have failed in achieving the means for which they were established, they have failed in reducing crimes in the society and also in reducing the high rate of recidivism in the society. The activities of students have long been subject to public concerns such as examination malpractice, physical assault, sexual assault, theft, bullying, and most times students always  categorize some crimes as less crimes and this makes them commit some offences as if they were normal, this includes indecent dressing, going late for lectures just to mention a few.

In order to ensure the reduction of criminal behavior in schools, there should be an effective model put in place to ensure the reduction of criminal behaviors in schools. The main focus is to continue the downward trends in the high volume crime and to intervene in the increase of recidivism and effectiveness and efficiency of the intervention in addressing the behavior of the youth and the causes of such behavior and their needs.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The history of criminal behavior in institutions has been seen to have grown over the years. This shows that this area of criminal acts among students have been neglected in that the same solution have been applied to the increase of these criminal behaviors in students and this has not yielded any positive result over the years.

Some of the problems include;

•           Increase in crime rate in the institutions

•           There is no standard measure of tackling criminal behaviors among students

•           Increase in victimization among students

•           Rise of tension among students

 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The broad objective of the study is to evaluate the criminal behaviors of students of private institutions and to examine measures of reducing criminal behavior. Specific objectives include:

•      To identify the criminal behaviors of students in both Afe Babalola University and

Bowen university

•      To compare the trend of criminal activities in both institutions

•      To compare both institutions students disciplinary committee with the intent of knowing how effective they have been in reducing crime

•      To analyze the success that has been achieved in reducing the crime

•      To identify the challenges faced in reducing criminal behavior  

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

•      How does criminal behavior affect the institution?

•      Can criminal behaviors in private universities be eradicated completely?

•      To what extent has the human and material resources directed at reducing crime in institution helped in reducing crime effectively?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This study shall contribute to the already existing body of study of criminal behavior and serve as reference for further researches on this study. It will contribute to the already existing measures of reducing criminal behaviors in private universities in order to prevent such actions from affecting the offenders, victims, and the institution and to also prevent future recidivism. It will contribute to the efforts directed at curbing criminal behaviors in the private institutions to ensure it does not affect the society at large. It will also contribute to building individual understanding on crime and criminal behavior, why crime and ways of relating with such behavior. This study will basically provide information to private institutions (both students and the authority) and public institution as well as the government on the best way to tackle criminal behavior among students in the society.

1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY

This study is designed to study criminal behaviors among students of private universities and how such behaviors affects the victims and the institution at large, also the study will analyze and compare the way criminal behaviors are been reduced in the institutions. Specifically, this work shall involve studying criminal behaviors of student in private universities though focusing on the criminal behaviors of students in Afe Babalola University Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State and Bowen University Iwo Osun State to know why they commit crime and to study their various measures of reducing such criminal behaviors. 

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

During the course of this study some words would be put to use. Below are some words and their definitions;

Crime: This can be defined as an act of commission or omission which is prohibited by criminal law punishable by fine or imprisonment. Crime is the commission or omission; failure to do ore act of doing any act which is prohibited or required by the criminal code of an organization, institution or a state. 

Recidivism: The act of a person repeating an undesirable behavior after he or she has either experienced negative consequences of that behavior, or has been treated or trained to extinguish that behavior.

Victim: An aggrieved or disadvantaged party in a crime. A person who suffers any injury, loss or damage as a result of a voluntary undertaking. 

Delinquent: An act of misconduct by a person under 18.

Deviance: Actions that violate formal and informal cultural norms.

Violence: Action intended to cause destruction, pain or suffering.

Behavior: The way a person acts. The way of life of a person or group of people.

Criminal: A person who is guilty of a crime, notably breaking the law.

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work shall comprise five chapters. Chapter one will be the introduction which deals with the background to the study, statement of research problems, research questions, research hypothesis, objectives of the study, significance of the study, operationalization of concepts, and organization of the study; as dully presented here in this section. Chapter two covers the literature review which consists of the conceptual clarification and theoretical frame work. Chapter three is for the research methodology; Chapter four shall be a presentation, analysis and interpretation of the primary data gathered from the field work. Finally, chapter five shall conclude the research work by providing a research summary, findings, conclusion and recommendation of the study.


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