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A microcontroller-Based Versatile Stepper Motor System/Trainer has been designed and implemented in this project. The developed prototype was built with readily available components including the AT89C51 Microcontroller which runs the control software and provides a flexible interface to the stepper motor drive. The control system is capable of driving the stepper motor clockwise or counterclockwise in full steps or in half steps according to the need of the stepper motor driven application. The angular displacement for the stepper motor shaft is 50 per full-step and 2.50 per half-step but this varies according to the design of each stepper motor. This prototype can be used to demonstrate the features of a stepper motor that recommends it for use in incremental motion control where precision and positioning accuracy are of paramount importance. Examples of such applications include its use in conveyor belts in pharmaceutical industries, bottling companies, printers, and many others. If used as a trainer kit in our tertiary institutions, there is no doubt that it will enhance the know-how of the students and by extension improve their capacity to help automate our local industries
1.1 Background of the Study
Microcontroller based stepper motor control is an electronic device which transfers control to an attached object and drives it towards a particular direction in stipulated steps as specified by the microcontroller, depending on control input signals from the controller, the stepper motor can be caused to exhibit various effects through specified mode of operation. It is applied in electromechanical devices were precise or specific angular movement is being addressed.
The project aim is to witness the application of stepper motor on devices attached to it, there by experimenting the movement with the help yielded by this motor. With the aid of control input buttons, specific directive signals are being set up to activate the stepper motor which now transfer control to objects/device attached.
The experiments portrayed by this project are achieved using the control software found in the microcontroller.
1.2 Objective of the Project
The Objectives of this project are as follows,
• To design and implement a stepper motor controller by programming the microcontroller with sequence of actions to carry out as at when due
• To design and implement a stepper motor drive or power circuit
• To design and develop stepper motor base experiments to serve as laboratory work for students of tertiary institution
• To interface the stepper motor controller to the stepper motor drive using opto isolators to protect digital circuits from power circuits
• To test the system by performing all the designed experiments with it.
1.3 Justification of Project
The conventional motor (AC/DC) spin continuously, with the AC motor having two parts which are the outside stationary stator and an insider rotor while the stepper motor moves one step at a time, if we command a stepper motor to move some specific number of steps, it rotates incrementally that many number of steps and stops. Because of this basic nature of a stepper motor, it is widely used in low cost open loop position control system. Open loop control means no feedback information on about the position is needed. This eliminates the need for expensive sensing and feedback devices such as optical encoders. In this project, the position is known simply by keeping track of the number of input step pulses. This fact simply entail that the aim of this project was actualized.
1.4 Scope of the Project
This project covers the theoretical and analytic concept behind motors, its origin and advancements made in the technology. The design of an electronic circuit that will help achieve the desired objective will be shown in details.
Also discussed are the various components that will be implemented in the circuit, the pin layout, the wiring schematics and the complete schematics and packaging of the project.
Moreover, the desired objectives were compared with the actual outcome based on a set of test data, to determine how satisfactory the project is, cost analysis shall also be taken into consideration by looking at how much it takes to develop one system. From this cost evaluation, one can then simulate cost of mass producing the system. The problem encountered during the development of the project and the steps taken to overcome them shall be listed.
1.5 Project Report Organisation
This project report is organized into chapters and sections.
There are six chapters in all. Chapter one introduces the project topics, and talks about the background, desired objectives and justification of the project amongst other things.
An overview of the previous works done in the use of conventional motors and a full details about the use of stepper motor with respect to various experiments are the subject of chapter two. Chapter three gives an in-depth analysis of the system and gives details on all the components used in designing and building this project.
Chapter four covers the design specification, hardware/software tradeoffs, the various interface including output interface, input interface, control interface and power supply.
Chapter five is all about the implementation of the design generated in chapter four. It includes detailed pin layouts of components and wiring schematics as well as the control software implementation system packaging, testing and integration, performance evaluation and cost analysis are also treated in this chapter.
Finally, chapter six covers problem encountered during design and implementation, the steps taken to overcome them, summary of the project, and also suggestions for improvement on the project.