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1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The quality of education is directly related to the quality of instruction in the classrooms. It is a fact that the academic qualifications, knowledge of the subject matter, competence, and skills of teaching and the commitment of the teacher have effective impact on the teaching learning process (National Education Policy 1998-2010). Quality improvement in education depends upon proper training of teachers. The teachers cannot play any of the roles unless properly trained (Yadved and Singh, 1988). The performance of students especially in external examinations goes a long way to show the level of preparedness of the student definitely by qualified teachers.
Teaching is an art. It can be refined by training and practice. The availability of competent teachers is central in the reconstruction of the educational system. Biology has acquired the status of a global language (Crystal, 1997). Keeping in view the growing need and importance of Biology in every walk of life, Biology is made a compulsory subject in Nigeria from the very beginning of the academic career. This increasingly necessitates good quality initial preparation for non-native speaker teachers in the school system (Cullen, 1994).
Biology is taught as a compulsory subject and also the whole teaching learning process is carried out in Biology language. In other words, Biology is also the medium of instruction in Nigerian schools. This enables the students of these schools to learn Biology in an environment where most of the interaction between the teacher and the students is in Biology (Fuller & Clark, 1994). As a result, the students of these schools are more proficient in Biology and perform well in the external examinations.
In some schools, however, the teaching of Biology is done somewhat differently and the proficiency in the language is somewhat inadequate. The traditional grammar translation method is favorite with the teachers and there is hardly any exposure to Biologyinside or outside the class. Most of the activities in the class are done in the vernacular or the mother tongue. Even Biologyis explained through Urdu or the vernaculars (Al-mutawa&Kailani, 1989). The students resort to memorization and cramming. The teacher is the facilitator of examinations rather than of learning. The students memorize, translate and retranslate and, finally reproduce the crammed information or knowledge in the external examinations. No creativity is witnessed on the part of the students from this kind of teaching experience (Baumgardner, 1993).The reason is that the teachers themselves are not qualified or competent enough to teach Biology efficiently. This causes poor results in Biology eventually leading to highest failure percentage in Biology at external examinations. Thus Biology becomes the biggest hurdle (particularly for the students from rural areas) in the way to getting higher education and the key administrative posts. In its annual report, Federal Public Service Commission (1998) reported that Biology as the medium of expression in the external examination is depriving the students of some poor institutions to compete with their counterparts from highly placed institutions.
Biology as a language plays a number of roles in the socio-economic, political and cultural development of Nigeria society. The continued slide in the performance of students in the Biology in external examinations is a course for great concern not only for the teachers but also for all stake holders in the business of education. This is more worrisome when one considers the fact that Biology doubles as a medium of instruction in Nigerian schools as well as our linquafranca. The central role of Biology cannot, therefore, be wished away. The pattern of failure has, however, shown that the incidence appears to be higher in some schools than it is with other schools. A number of factors have been linked to the courses but more relevant is the issue of qualification of the teachers. This is more important because in the business of teaching and learning, teachers offer only what they have; you cannot offer what you don’t have. The qualification of teachers involved in teaching and learning has great roles in the performance of students and it is to find out these effects that this study is set out to accomplish. Chomsky (1972) “states that one cannot really teach a language but can only present the conditions in which it will develop spontaneously in the mind in its own ways”
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Language teaching has been the primary focus of applied linguistics. Formal instruction does not work in vacuum. School environment, teacher qualifications, curriculum and instructional approaches, and many other factors interact to produce growth in student academic skills and knowledge. There is sufficient empirical evidence that suggests that the academic performance of students relies substantially on the teachers they are assigned. Classroom based research is valid enough to determine whether the learners are receiving appropriate content instruction or not. Pennington (1989) says that the quality of teaching must be considered in determining what results can be expected. He further states that teachers make decisions about classroom management based upon the achievement gains. Thus we can say that findings about the relationship between teacher characteristics and student academic performance scores are important in determining the policy about the teachers. It is assumed that only those who have professional training in Biology teaching should teach Biology language. The Biology teacher should be the one whose competence and proficiency in all the language skills are in a good measure. But especially in written and conversational Biology, is not deficient. The Biology teacher should have a good knowledge of current usage and the theoretical aspects of Biology. In Nigeria today, most students in secondary schools and in fact even in universities lack the ability to communicate efficiently in Biology, both oral and written. This is still the major problem faced by Biology students today. It is therefore important to find out if the qualification of the Biology teachers has any effect on the performance of the students in written and spoken Biology in external examinations.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
To examine the effects of qualification of Biology teachers on the performance of secondary school students in external examination.
2. To examine the criteria for producing a qualified Biology teacher.
3. To determine the factors that can improve the academic performance of secondary school students in external examinations.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What are the effects of qualification of Biology teachers on the performance of secondary school students in external examination?
2. What are the criteria for producing a qualified Biology teacher?
3. What are the factors that can improve the academic performance of secondary school students in external examinations?
HO: There is no significant relationship between the qualification of Biology teacher and secondary school student performance in external examination.
HA: There is significant relationship between the qualification of Biology teacher and secondary school student performance in external examination.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
This study will serve as a painter to the ministry of education to verify whether the qualification of teachers has any effect on the student performance in senior secondary school certificate examination (SSCE). The finding will also help people who want to conduct such research to serve as reference.
2. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic
1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
Al-Mutawa, N. &Kailani, T. (1989).Methods of Teaching Biology to Arab Students. Harlow: Longman
Baumgardner, Robert J. (1993). The Biology in Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
Crystal, D. (1997). Biology as a Global studies. Cambridge University Press.
Cullen, R. (1994). Incorporating a Language Improvement Component in Teacher Training Programmes. ELT Journal, 48(2), 162-172
FPSC (1998). Annual Report: Federal Public Service Commission. Islamabad: Federal Public Service Commission
Fuller, B. & Clark, B. (1994). Raising School Effects While Ignoring Culture? Conditions and the Influence of Classroom Tools, Rules and Pedagogy.Review of Educational Research. 64 (1), 119-57
Yadred, D.D., &Singh, D. J. (1997).Evaluating the Effect of Teacher Degree Level on Educational Performance. In W.J. Fowler (Ed.), Developments in School Finance, Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics
Government of Nigeria, (1998). National Education Policy 1998-2010. Islamabad: Ministry of Education