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Chapter I


The main focus of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of Neem tree (Azadirachtaindica) leaf extract on Staphylococcus aureus. The Neem tree leaf extract was tested in terms of the different levels of concentration with (a) 25% concentration, (b) 50% concentration, (c) 75% concentration, (d) 100% concentration on Staphylococcus aureus. It specifically compared the significant differences of the different levels of concentration ofNeem tree leaf extract, and also compared to the positive control. The plant materials were collected and brought to the West Visayas State University Biological Science Laboratory where the experimentation was conducted.

Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was the research design used in the study. The interpretation of the results was based on the Claustro zone of inhibition scale. The statistical analysis (One- way ANOVA) was not employed due to the reason that the zone of inhibition is zero.

Results of the study revealed that there was no significant differences on the effect of the different levels of Neem tree (Azadirachtaindica) leaf extract on Staphylococcus aureus.

 Introduction of the Study

Background of the Study

Philippines is a country that has plenty of resources and biodiversity. Plants in different species just sprout and grow anywhere.Vegetations remain to be the most important part of human existence.

Medicinal substances derived from different plants around us have become the most sought sources of medicines. However, a considerable number of people in our generation still do not recognize the value and significance of medicinal plants.  Many people continue to rely on synthetic drugs for treatment of common illnesses despite their being expensive.

Basically, the researchers had initiated a study that may provide appropriate answers to some common health problems experienced by human beings.

Nowadays, skin problems also proliferate fast and are equally disturbing just like any other diseasesaffecting our communities.  This is the primary reason why researchers conceptualized this study to determine the anti-bacterial components of Neem (Azadirachtaindica) leaves extract and its possible effects against Staphylococcus aureus, the bacteria that concerns most of the common skin problems.

Neem is a tropical tree that has been declared non-toxic to humans. Previous studies revealed that it contains anti-bacterial properties and high-content of anti-oxidant called polyphenols. Neem tree extracts has an endodontic anti-microbial agent, an alternative to frequently employed Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexide; both to inhibit the growth of endodontic pathogens.

Sodium Hypochlorite is now used in endodontic during root canal treatments. It is the medicament of choice due to its efficacy against pathogenic organisms and pulp digestion. Chlorexide is a chemical antiseptic. It is effective on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Staphylococcus aureus is facultative anaerobic Gram-positve coccus, and is the common cause of staph infections. It is frequently part of skin flora found in the nose and the skin. About 20% of human population are long –term carriers of Staphylococcus aureus can cause a range of illness from skin infection, such as pimples, impetigo, cellulitis follicutis, to life threatening diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis, osteomyelitis, bacteremia and sepsis. It is still one of the five most common causes of nosocomial infections, often causing post-surgical wounds infection.

This study mainly aimed at finding out the antibacterial effect of Neem (Azadirachtaindica) tree leaf- extract on Staphylococcus aureus. Further, it also aimed to find out whether Neem tree leaf extract has significant effect in terms of different levels of concentrations, namely: (a)25% concentration  (b)50% concentration (c)75% concentration (d)100% concentration on inhibition Staphylococcus aureus.

Due to the high cost of medicines, unpredictable weather conditions that brought  certain diseases specifically skin diseases, the continuous uplifting of herbal medicines and abundance supply of neem tree were the reason why the researcher conducted this study.

 Research Paradigm

The research paradigm of the study is graphically presented (Figure 1.)

·         Levels of concentration of Neem

(Azadirachtaindica) leaf extract :

a)      25%

b)      50%

c)      75%

d)     100%

·         Zone of Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus

Independent Variable                                                 Dependent Variable

Figure 1.The theoretical framework of the study indicating the fixed and the dependent variables.

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to determine the antibacterial effect of Neem (Azadirachtaindica) leaves extract against Staphylococcus aureus.

It specifically:

1.    Determine the significant difference among the different levels of concentration; (a) 25%, (2) 50%, (3) 75%, (d) 100% of Neem tree leaves extract on Staphylococcus aureus as indicated by its zone of inhibition.

2.    Determine what sample treatment showed the widest zone of inhibition and the smallest zone of inhibition.

3.    Compared the effect of different levels of concentration of Neem (Azadirachtaindica) leaves extract on the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus to the control set-up.

It was therefore hypothesized that:

There is no significant difference between the levels of concentration: (a) 25%, (b) 50%, (c) 75%, (d) 100% of Neem leaves extract on Staphylococcus aureus as indicated by its zone of inhibition.

Significance of the Study

The anti-bacterial effect of Neem (Azadirachtaindica) leaves extract against Staphylococcus aureus, will be a great help in discovering a herbal medicine.

More specifically, it is beneficial on the following context:

Community- they can obtain a cheaper medicine using a herbal plant within their place and they can resort to the Neem Tree.

Filipino people- herbal medicine can be afford by almost all of us due to its abundance in the community.

Department  ofAgriculture- they will benefit on the ideas and knowledge that Neem tree can be used as an anti-bacterial medicine.

Department  of Health – ideas and facts can be presented about the Neem tree that can be used as a medicine.

Pharmaceutical companies- a cheaper medicine will be sold and they would gain on it and they would take the idea for herbal medicine.

Students- they could gain ideas about plants and can be used as a medicine and they can conduct further studies and researchers in relation to this study.

Researchers- fellow researchers can get ideas and information about the uses of Neem tree especially in inhabiting bacterial growth. They can also study on the plants that is abundant in their place.

 Scope and Limitations

    This study was conducted to determine the anti-bacterial capacity of Neem (Azadirachtaindica) leaf extract on staphylococcus aureus in different concentrations: 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% as indicated by its zone of inhibition. It also aimed to determine which concentrations has a significant effect.

Experimental method was used in this study. The independent variables were the different levels of concentration of Neem tree leaf extract and dependent variable was the zone of inhibition exhibited on the culturedStaphylococcus aureus. This study is limited on the bacterial samples of Staphylococcus aureus.

Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used.The preparation of the extract, culture of bacteria and experimentation was conducted at West Visayas State University Biological Science Laboratory, July 2011.

Definition of Terms

§  Antibiotics- a remedy that was used in the study namely the Cloxacillin.

§  Bacterial culture – it is a process that the researchers did in culturing the bacterial sample

§  Cloxacillin – an antibiotic intended to treat bacterial infections was used as the positive control set-up.

§  Extraction – the process by which the juice is separated from other residue of the leaves. The tea extract was used to treat the Staphylococcus aureus.

§  Neem leaves- the part of the neem tree that was extracted and was used in the study in different levels of concertration.

§  Neem tree – the neem (Azadirachtaindica) tree leaf extract was used in treating Staphylococcus aureus.

§  Nutrient agar – was used as bacterial medium for bacterial culture.

§  Petri dish – a container where the nutrient agar was placed and cultured.

§  Phytochemical Analysis – a data in which we obtained the information about the content of the variables used such as Thylanoids, Enzymes, Alkaloids, Tannins and Saponins.

§  Staphylococcus aureus– the bacteria that was treated in the study.

§  Zone of inhibition- used term for the region inhibited by our antibacterial agent (Neem).

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