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Agriculture has been the basic of very civilization for thousands of years, due to food goods it produces, its capacity to harness natural resources and forming landscape. The social relationship it builds around (in particular control over land). More than any other activity, agriculture fuels the imagination and forges peoples cultures, so care is needed when considering the evolution of agriculture. Peasant farming is a localized system of agricultural farming usually operated on a small piece of land. This type of farming is practice in poor communities, since the farmers do not have enough capital. It is concerned with the provision of t he basic needs of the family. Farming activities are carried out without the use of machine rather crude implements are used such as cutlass, hoe, spade etc., the farmer also relies on and operates with family labour, the total yield from the farm is usually low where there is little or no excess or surplus for sale or capital investment.
This type of agriculture is mostly practiced by peasant farmers and cost of production is very low. The practice provides direct employment for many people since machines are not used. It also makes the environment to be free from pollution and there is also less danger of environment degradation. In Uhunmwonde local government area vast majority of farmers are still peasants who farms small plot of land, usually in marginal environment utilizing traditional and subsistence methods for their consumption because it is associated with low capital for production use of crude implement. These farmers live in rural area and are poor in nature hence their standard of living is low. Despite of these characteristics, peasant farming system has vital role to play in agricultural sector. So solutions therefore must be found for empowering peasants to deal with such problems.
It is also associated with the problems of land ownership, soil type, availability of inputs and availability of manpower thereby discouraging the hope of large scale production among the farmers, and farm products among the farmers and mainly subsistence as a result of this, the farmers cannot meet up with their standards. The main purpose of this study was to identify solution to deal with challenges facing peasant farming system in Uhunmwonde local government, Edo State.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
In this project work attempt was made to find out the appropriate measure to adopt to carefully identified the problems and prospect of peasant farming in the area of study. The researcher examined some of the following problems.
Why is productivity low in Uhunmwonde local government area?
What are the steps taken so far either by government or individuals to increase farm productivity in the area of study?
What is the type of farming system practice by these people in the locality?
What is the cause of low-standard of living of the people?
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of the study includes the following:
To investigate the various problems of peasant farming in Uhunmwonde local government area.
To look into how peasant farming affects the people in the locality.
To find possible situation to the problems and give some possible recommendation of enhancing peasant farming in the area of study.
As a farmer what type of farming method would you employ?
Do farmers in your area have access to financial assistance to carry out large scale farming?
What is your occupation?
Are there problems of in accessible road in your area?
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work covers Uhunmwonde local government area. The village in the area of studies are:
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
A lot of benefits are derived from this study. Firstly, the local farmers in the area of study will be aware of agricultural production.
Secondly, the general public who are interested in agricultural activities will also be aware of the farming in the area of study, this will help them to show positive attitude to farming.
Thirdly, this project work will help the agricultural policy making body to focus attention in their area of priority.
Finally, this project work will also help the agricultural policy making body to play an important roles in the need to improve subsistence farming to a large scale mechanized farming.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Peasant farming: This means farming mainly made for consumption with little or no left for sales and usually done on a small scale of land. It is concerned with the provision of basic need of the family.
Crude Implements: These are implement use to carry out work in a small piece of farm land, they are also known as simple farm tools e.g. cutlass, here, spade shovel etc. this type to tools are mostly use by peasant farmers because of the size of their land.
Commercial farming: This is the type of farming that is done on a large scale. Most of its operations are usually mechanized and it has high yield. Few labourers are required on the farm hence it can lead to unemployment. This type of farming is very expensive in terms of money, skilled labour and management. It is mostly practice by rich farmers.
Land tenure system: Land tenure is the relationship whether legally or customarily defined among people as individuals or groups with respect to land. Land tenure may also be described as a set of property relationship between two, it means the holding of land and the term tenant include owners, lessees and other occupiers of the land. It also means the right to hold property.