PROJECT TOPIC: THE INFLUENCE OF WESTERN TELEVISION PROGRAMMERS ON THE CULTURAL VALUES OF NIGERIA YOUTH (A CASE STUDY OF UNILORIN)
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Culture, differentiate man from other species, only human beings rely on culture for survival because man alone is in possession of culture.
Culture is a complex whole that includes knowledge beliefs, art morals, laws customs, other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of the society.
Culture can not be exit without society and vice versa without culture, we would not be human. This implies that language to express opinions and ability to think or reason would be completely limited.
However, one culture may be different from another; they all share one fundamental feature. They are transmitted from the old to the young through a system of symbol in form of sound, marks on the face, physical gestures, or objects created to embody a symbolic meaning. Hence man and culture are inseparable. Man receive a double inheritance at birth (social and biological), which enable him to be able to recreate his nature environment.
The term culture has been defined differently by different people. The difference definitions attached to culture are based on the differences in the orientation of the scholars. It can be said to be the way of life of a particular society.
Specific and general meaning of culture could be given as a configuration of learned and shared patterns of behavior and of understanding the meaning and value of things, ideas, emotions, and actions that arise out of language communication within a social group and helps an individual to adapt to his physical environment, his biological nature and his group life (Adetola and Ademola 1985).
Culture, though universal to man yet differs from one society to another. It is also seen as a complete societal heritage, because it welds together past and present, synthesizing achievement and aspirations. It involves more than simply adding up all the way people act and think, as well as assessing the sum of their possessions (Soyinka, 1991).
Culture can be defined as the beliefs, valves, behaviors and material objects shared by a particular people. Since man lives in the society, he cannot be detached from neither the society nor culture, though society and culture are sometimes used interchangeably but their precise meanings are different.
Culture is everything that is part of people’s way of life, in everyday conversation, refers to sophisticated art items such as classical literature, music, dance and painting etc (Newman, 2000).
Culture is a concept used in an attempt to analyze and integrate events and ideals in broad spectrum of areas of society. Jekayinka (2002), states that from wider perspective, culture include the total repertoire of human action which are socially transmitted from generation to generation. The transformation of culture is a continuous process of change. It change exactly the same ways as the human being change. It is dynamic learned, acquired, transmitted or diffused through contract or means of communication flow from generation to another. The Nigeria culture is observed to be fading out as a result of the acceptance and adaptation of the modernist’s solution into underdevelopment. One of such theories which relates to this subtle method of assault international communication is given by Lerner (1956).
In his concept of “empathy” Lerner states that the inhabitants of third world nations must learn to empathize with the west for modern transformation of their societies to be possible. schramm (1964), on the other hand, developed an interesting model in which he equates the level of social development of communication to various nations. Access to these modern mass media (radio, television, films, telephone and newspapers) is linked to individual modernity. Nigeria and other third world countries have related to these findings by inventing a substantial amount of their foreign exchange earnings to import radio and television transmitters and sets. The television programmer especially provides many powerful models for children and abundant opportunities for observation learning.
Television Programmes Include!
1. Depiction of sex
3. Drug and alcohol used
a. Vulgar language: - behaviors e.t.c that most parents do not want their children to imitate.
Studies on early adolescence have shown that the average Nigeria children have watched thousand of dramatized murders and countless other act of violence on television for many years. Psychologists have debated the question of whether watching violence on TV have determinate effect on children.
A number of experiments both inside and outside the laboratory have found evidence that viewing TV violence is relayed to increased aggression in children.
Nigerians as exemplified by trends in Ilorin metropolis were western exports of television entertainment, information is shown on NTA Ilorin ESBS Television, minaj channel, cartoon network, ESPN. “Expanded sports programmers networks channel provided by various satellite transmission operators as DSTV, Multi – Choice, Music television, Euro sport, etc. have raised Nigeria eye-brows to such western television programmers. Thereby, making them to behaving like them, associate with them and even speaks like them. Even our generation that is shown on NTA Ilorin and the youth perspective on ESBS are presented by youth and replete with music video of Western origin dominated by stars as (late) Tupac, Beyounce, Ashanti, 50-cent, Sean Paul, Kelly Rowland, Celine Dion, etc. It is the researchers believe that western television especially American television exports have a strategic “weapon” aimed to our power the cultural valves of Nigeria youths.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
The influence of western television programmers on the cultural values of Nigeria youth have been said to be a serious problem facing Nigerians. Some of these problems are:
1. Inadequate policy to guard the youths towards western TV programmers.
2. There is an erosion of the culture values.
3. The imitation of western cultures especially the America cultures.
Therefore if the above problems have not been taken care of, it will lead to a total destruction of the Nigerians culture.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The researcher’s objective is to conduct an in-depth research on the influence of western television programme on the culture values of the Nigeria youth with an insight to determining is the implication of the cultural values of Nigeria youths other objective of the study are:
1. To show the contents of western television programme affect Nigeria university students.
2. To examines its pervasive impact on the cultural values of Nigeria university student.
3. To know how to isolate western television programme from Nigerian.
1.4 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
1. The research will help in possible dilution, domination and finally absorption of the African / Nigeria culture until the present has been characterized with good neighborliness, respect for elders, virtuousness, community orientation and collectivism.
2. It will enable the government and policy makers to put adequate measures in place to check the movement of western television programmes into Nigeria.
3. It will help remove the ideal of imitating western cultures or ways of life from Nigerians.
4. The conduct of this research will enable the government to know what role the media can play in the development of a country and therefore harness the mass media especially TV in the democratic process and development process in general.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research questions are arranged questions meant to be asked by the researcher and received a feedback (answer) from respondent for a researcher to achieve her aim, the following question are deducted from this research.
1. Do Nigeria youths expose themselves more to TV them other media?
2. Do they prefer western TV programmers to locally produced ones and why if yes?
3. Do Nigeria youth identify more with locally or foreign TV stars as models?
4. Will improvement of local TV/movies industries improve Nigerian youth’s preference for local TV product?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
i. Hi: more exposure to TV lead identification of western
TV stars as models
Ho: more exposure to TV does not lead to identification of western TV stars as models.
ii. HII: The improvement of local TV /movies industries will not increase Nigerian youth’s preference for local TV product.
Ho: the improvement of local TV / movies industries will not increase Nigerian youth’s preference for local TV product. Why not simple questionnaire method?
1.7 SCOPE/DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is to find out how the western television programmes affect the cultural values of Nigerian youths using university of Ilorin as a case of study.
The higher institution has been noted for a constant influence of western television programmes on their cultural values. Hence the needs for choosing the institution as a case study. In the cause of the research, oral interview were consult anted on both staffs and students of the institution. But the research depends more on the questionnaire which were distributed to students and staffs and were completed and returned. The researcher also consulted some text books, newspapers and journals which provided a lot of information pertaining to the study.
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