PROJECT TOPIC: TELEVISION AS AN INSTRUMENT OF EDUCATIONAL ADVANCEMENT
Television is believed by some people to be a technology from which children learn all sorts of social vices, this perception of people is not totally correct because this technology is neither meant to teach good morals nor social vices, it is simply meant for people to enjoy various kinds of programme, it depends on what kind of programme one devotes his or her time to watch that determines what one learns from it. This research has revealed that television could indeed be an instrument of educational advancement as children could make a great deal of benefit from the educative programmes that they watch on the television. Parents would allow their wards to watch television programmes provided such programmes are those that will make good impact academically, morally and psychologically in the lives of their wards. This research work was carried out to study “Television as an Instrument Children Educational Advancement”; the research work was carried out in N.T.A channel 8 Enugu. A total number of 78 staff members of the station were used as sample size from the studied population. A wellstructured questionnaire was constructed and administered to elicit responses from respondents. The framework for data collection for the study was built on 3 research questions: (i) to what extent is television contributing to educational advancement? (ii) In what light are students benefiting from watching television programmes? (iii) What types of television programmes should be transmitted on television to help facilitate educational advancement? The data collection and analysis were done through survey method; findings revealed that the television is contributing a great deal to educational advancement. It also revealed that students are benefitting more from watching television academically and morally than in social vices. It also revealed that parents would allow their children to watch television programmes very well, especially the educative ones. It also revealed that most of television programmes should be educative. This study is recommended to students to encourage them to utilize the opportunity of the educative programmes being transmitted on the television to their advantage. The study is also recommended to academic institutions to sensitize their constituted management to the advantages associated with the use of television for delivering effective teaching to students. This research work is also recommended to the government to identify the importance of television to educational advancement, and provide necessary supports needed to make broadcasting of educative programmes to people. The research work is also recommended to parents to enlighten them on why they should encourage their wards to watch benefitting television programmes that will put their wards ahead of their contemporaries in school.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education in Nigeria today, has assumed a very important position in the country’s development programme. This accounts for the introduction of the universal free primary education (U.P.E.) in 1976 and the establishment of new primary, secondary and post secondary schools all over the country.
Education could be defined in various ways. In a very broad sense, education includes every agency, which enables an individual to master his physical and social environment of which he is a member. But for the purpose of this education will be defined as an organized and formal instruction, which is given in educational establishments such as schools, colleges and universities.
Education has an important role to play in the economy of a nation. The most important economic function as that of ensuring that the nation’s need for a labour force is satisfied.
However, formal education in Nigeria is no longer confirmed to education establishments only. The mass media have, in recent times, taken a held and positive step towards enhancing educational development in the country. An example is that Enugu State Broadcasting (ESBS)
Mass media communication comprised the institutions and techniques by which specialized groups employ technological devices, that is the press, TV, Radio, Film ETC, to disseminate information to large heterogeneous and widely disperse audience.
This study is particularly concerned with TV and its contribution to educational advancement in the country especially Enugu state.
Television Broadcasting was first established in Nigeria (indeed Africa) on October 31st 1956 in Ibadan, by the their government of the western region of Nigeria.
This station now called Nigeria Television Ibadan (NTA Ibadan) was run as an aim of the former western Nigeria government Broadcasting corporation initially under the trading name western Nigeria Radio services limited, in partnership with oversees rediffusion limited of U.K
Two years after its inception, the regional Government bought over the shares of the foreign partners, and became the proprietor. A year after the establishment of the Ibadan station, the former government of Eastern Nigeria, in October 1960, set up the second Nigeria Television service then known as ENTV.
This later become NTA Enugu shortly after, on 1967 the Northern Region Government established a television station as an aim of the Broadcasting company of Northern Nigeria (BCNN) located in Kaduna, the station was known as Radio Kaduna Television (RKTV) and was also owned jointly by the regional government and a British Television Company. The Federal Government in 1962, established its own station, the Nigeria Television service (NTS) under a management agreement with an American Network. This services was confirmed to the federal capital, and soon came under the Nigeria Broadcasting corporation, (NBC) when the management contract with the Americans was determined.
The advert of television brought with it a new dimension to broadcasting in Africa within the first decade of its arrival twenty –two African countries established their own television stations.
The creation of states in Nigeria meant that the new state administrators could set- up television net works in their states. The old government of the Mid-Western states in 1973 went ahead by establishing the Mid-West Television (MTV) now NTA Benin, but emerged, transmitting in colour. It therefore becomes the first station in the country to broadcast in colour.
In 1975, the federal military government announced its intention to take over television station in Nigeria. It then set up a machinery within the federal ministry of information t give effect to its plan. At this time, ten stations, Ibadan, Enugu, Kaduna, Lagos, Benin, Jos, Port –Harcourt, Kano, Sokoto and Owerri (Aba), in order had been set-up the Nigeria Television Authority was finally inaugurated in May, 1977 although Decree 24 of 1977 which establish it was promulgated in March 1977 but effect from April 1976. by that Decree the Nigeria Television Authority become the only body empowered to undertake televisions broadcasting in the country, indeed the federal government has begun to fund all the station from the first April, 1976, when networking of news also commenced of Nigeria Television, Via Domestic Satellite (Domsat). By December 1979, there was scheduled broadcasts from every state capitalization of broadcasting station and the creation of new states many new television education services has come to stay in Nigeria.
The programming of Television Educational progrmmes came shortly after the establishment of Television industry, The cardinal point of the NTA’S programming is its public service nature.
The enabling low stipulates that NTA be independent and impartial: Its programming and coverage polices should therefore be available oriented, but guided by the nation’s social, political , moral cultural, scientific, educational and economic goals.
The purpose of programme objections in dual, firstly, it facilitates, the monitoring of programmes on the basis of a recognized fame of reference and secondly, it serves to focus the producers mind on the purpose of the programme he is making.
The following decision on classification on programmes should not in any way be seen to be mutually, ecclesial application. Rather, they are meant to serve as guided posts to success and effective programming.
- Children’s programme
- Youth programme
- Family matters programmes
- News and current affairs programmes
- Sports programmes
- Drama Programms
- Light entertainment Programmes
- The arts Programmes.
According to Uchenna Odoh of NTA Channel and presentation Unit, at the time of this research, the NTA broadcast the following educational programme.
On Mondays, quiz time by 5.00pm, Wednesday, Do-it –yourself by 4.3pm, Thursdays, set /Network by 6.30pm, Fridays, speak out by 6.30pm.
According to him, instructional television, which was usually, shown on Monday’s by 6.30 pm is presently problems and will come back to air immediately the problem is rectified.
According to him. NTA formal educational objectives are as follows:
a. To complement and supplement classroom education.
b. To broaden an deepen knowledge
c. To bring to light bread through in knowledge
d. To encourage intellectual development
e. To encourage and teach lavational skills
f. To provide tutorials on curricular subjects
This study on Television as an instrument of educational advancement focuses on effectiveness of Television educational programmes on educational advancement of children in Enugu-state.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
In this study, it is not easy to get accurate responses from audiences due to the massive poverty prevalent in the area. Many are unable to afford the sets.
Questionnaire data through television get only to the minority due to non-availability of electricity.
Inadequate responses from the respondents delay the research questionnaire.
Television has the particular problem of technical expertise, in terms of NTA channel 8 Enugu, the programmes are not shown all the time due to technical problem.
Televisions set and has time to watched the NTA Channel 8 progrmmes.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This research work is chosen to:
(a) Ascertain and critically examine how students are benefitting from watching television programmes.
(b) Determine the extent to which television is contributing to educational advancement.
(c) Determine the types of television programmes that should be transmitted on television to help facilitate educational advancement.
(d) Ascertain and critically examine how students are benefitting from watching television programmes.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study was important bearing in mind that today’s children live in an audiovisual world and world of technological television.
Since NTA channel 8 Enugu has shown considerable interest in broadcasting educational programmes aimed at children and adult a like, it is important to examine the effect of these progrmmes on children in Enugu,
This study shows the extent which the children could benefit from these progrmmes.
The results of this study will add to the total body of knowledge and to the development of television educational programme from which the society as a whole is bound to benefit.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1) To what extent is television contributing to educational advancement?
2) In what light are students benefiting from watching television NTA channel 8 programmes?
3) What types of television programmes should be transmitted on NTA channel 8 to help facilitate educational advancement?
In carrying out the study, the following assumptions were made;
1) That the people (children) who constituted the sample watched televisions.
2) That television educational programme was effective in educational advancement of children.
3) That the previous study has been carried out on this topic thus there is much research work gathered in literature review.
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