PROJECT TOPIC: CONTRIBUTION OF SAVINGS AND CREDIT COOPERATIVES TO WOMEN DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY ERADICATION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.8 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.3 EMPIRICAL REVIEW
2.4 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 AREA OF STUDY
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.4 RESEARCH SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
3.6 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
3.7 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
1.1 Background to the Study
Globally poverty incidence is still at the high level especially in developing countries (MDG, 2014). About one in five persons in developing regions live on less than $1.25 per day (MDG, 2014). The area which is highly affected is the Sub-Saharan Africa whereby the proportion of people living below $1.25 is 48 percent followed by Southern Asia (30 percent) and Southern Asia excluding India (22 percent). In addition, vulnerable employment accounts for 56 percent of all the employment in developing regions, compared to 10 percent in developed regions (MDG Report, 2014). This is a clear indication that poverty is a problem among countries especially developing countries. According to the World Bank (2008) microfinance institutions have proved the possibility of providing reliable services to the poor customers which ultimately contributes to reducing poverty. Khan & Rahaman (2007) demonstrates that Bangladesh is currently the home to the most extensive microfinance operations in the world. It has been noted that saving and credit cooperative societies in Bangladesh has not only helped people to develop in their material capital but also in human capital by ensuring better access to health care, education system and general awareness among the people about their rights and duties.
In Nigeria poverty incidence remains to be a challenge whereby out of every 100 Nigerians, 28.2 were poor in 2012 (HBS, 2012) compared to 36 in 2000/01. According to the World Bank (1997) Social Sector Review in Nigeria, a third of Nigerians live in household’s classified hard core poverty and a further fifth of Nigerians live in households classified as poor on the basis of their income. Nigeria is committed to reduce by 19.5 percent the proportion of people below national basic needs poverty line by the year 2015 (MDG, 2006). Among the intervention for poverty reduction includes the Saving and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOs) which the Government encourage as key drivers of efforts to fight against poverty (PRSP, 2000: Cooperative Development Policy, 2002:10,). This has made SACCOs more attractive to customers, thus deeply entrenching themselves in the financial sectors of many countries (Munyiri, 2006). Major challenges facing entrepreneurs is lack of skills and capital for investments (Bwana and Mwakujonga, 2013). In response to missing capital, SACCOs have tempted to bridge the gap by extending small loans for income generating purposes. Majority of Sacco’s research studies in Nigeria has concentrated on outreach issues, sustainability, growth and few focused on efficiency of microfinance in poverty reduction.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Most women now use savings and credit cooperatives (SACCOs) as a strategy of eliminating poverty in Nigeria, however, it has not performed creditably well and hence has not played the expected vital and vibrant role in poverty reduction SACCOs have the opportunity to widen access to the poor who doesn’t have flexible access in other financial institutions like Commercial Banks. They perform the roles of mobilization of savings for investments, facilitate and encourage flow of capital from agents with no investment opportunities to those who have them, optimize allocation of capital between competing uses and ensure capital goes to the most productive use (Levine, 1997). Despite the increasing number of SACCOs institutions, poverty incidence remains to be a challenge in the community whereby 32 percent of the population of Kwara state Nigeria is below the poverty line (Kessy et al, 2011). Previous studies conducted on the role of SACCOs in poverty reduction focused on the extent these institutions have been able to provide loan accessibility to the beneficiaries ignoring the social-economic outcomes of those loans to the community (Kessy and Urio, 2006). The outcome of SACCOs services is not clearly known which includes the extend SACCOs Loans, saving mobilization and entrepreneurial skills has enabled growth of investments and income, self-employment and improved social services. Important to note is that, knowledge about the outcome of micro-credit initiatives among households remains only partial and contestable. Therefore, this study examined the contribution of SACCO on women development and poverty eradication using Kwara state as a case study.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to find out the contribution of SACCO on women development and poverty eradication in Ekiti LGA, Kwara state, specifically the study intends to;
1. Find out the levels in which SACCO has developed women in Kwara state.
2. Examine the contribution of SACCO on women development and poverty eradication
3. Find out the causes of poverty and underdevelopment among women in Nigeria
1.4 Research Question
1. What is the levels in which SACCO has developed women in Kwara state?
2. Is there any significant contribution of SACCO on women development and poverty eradication?
3. Find out the causes of poverty and underdevelopment among women in Nigeria?ZXC C CCC
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: there is no significant contribution of SACCO on women development and poverty eradication
Hi: there is significant contribution of SACCO on women development and poverty eradication
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is of importance both at local and national levels. Locally the study is of importance for the practitioners in SACCOS and local governments to understand the relevance of SACCOS in improving household income and whether they are attaining the anticipated objective. This is to enable them to refocus in case the intended objectives are not being met. The study also offered an opportunity for the practitioners to get feedback from people who are participating and those not participating in SACCOS and this feedback includes suggestions on what can be done better which can be used to create a positive change income levels. At the national level, the study is of importance in assessing the relevance of SACCOS in increasing and improving house hold income for teachers. This brings out practically what it takes to establish and manage a successful SACCO and this can be integrated in national policies.
This study will also be source of knowledge to academicians, practitioners, SACCOs members and the public in general. It will also be useful source of information and knowledge to policy makers who wish to transform the performance of SACCOs in this country. Moreover, the study will sharpen our understanding of what products and services offered by SACCOs and how beneficial they are for Nigerians in urban areas and for women development.
1.7 Scope of the Study
In this study technical competence of the respondents will be investigated to find out whether participation in and presence of SACCOS in their areas has helped them in improving household income. In addition, the current engagements will be explored to find out whether they are opportunities and challenges and if they have managed to set up their own solutions.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.
However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.
1.9 Definition of Terms
SACCOS: These are savings and credit cooperative organizations which are initiated by both governments and private individuals or firms in order to improve the welfare and income of the general public in which they are located.
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myProject.ng (2022). Contribution of savings and credit cooperatives to women development and poverty eradication. myProject.ng: retrieved May 24, 2022, from https://myproject.ng/cooperative-economics/contribution-of-savings-and-credit-cooperatives-to-women-development-and-poverty-eradication/index.html
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myProject.ng, . "Contribution of savings and credit cooperatives to women development and poverty eradication" (2022). Accessed 24, May, 2022. https://myproject.ng/cooperative-economics/contribution-of-savings-and-credit-cooperatives-to-women-development-and-poverty-eradication/index.html .;
myProject.ng (2022), . Contribution of savings and credit cooperatives to women development and poverty eradication [Online] myProject.ng (2018). Available at: https://myproject.ng/cooperative-economics/contribution-of-savings-and-credit-cooperatives-to-women-development-and-poverty-eradication/index.html . ( Accessed 24, May, 2022 ).
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