PROJECT TOPIC: EFFECT OF STOCKING DENSITY ON THE GROWTH RATE OF SNAIL
This research work was carried out to determine the effect of stocking density of snails. The experimental site was agricultural department Federal College of Education Osiele, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Seventy snails were purchased at reputable market for the purpose of the study.
The snails were arranged as ten, fifteen, twenty, and twenty-five in four baskets filled with loamy soil. The snails were fed daily with unripe pawpaw fruits, pawpaw leaves, egg shell and wet chaff. Water was sprinkled on the snails to keep the snail moist. It was observed that the snails grouped as ten and fifteen had better weight gains respectively compared to the ones grouped as twenty five in a basket. The snail weights were recorded weekly. The enclosure exerted adverse effect on the snail with high stocking density
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Importance of Snail Farming
1.4 Snail Farming
1.5 Research Hypothesis
1.6 Objectives of the Study
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 History of Snails
2.2 Biology of Snails
2.3 Snails Feed and Feeding of Snails
2.4 Dietary Requirement and Replacement
3.0 Methods and Materials
3.1 Management of the Experimental Snail
3.2 Experimental Snail Population
3.3 Experimental Procedure
4.0 Data Analysis and Result
5.0 Recommendation and Conclusion
Snail farming is the act of rearing snail whether in old tyres, earthen pots, basket, raised wooden, cage, concrete cage and snail pen. (Akinnusi, 1998). Intensive rearing of snail is relatively new in livestock or animal production and research in Nigeria for it came into programme only very recently (Akinnusi 1998).
Snail farming is an advantage to human beings because it has high potential returns and low inputs, that is, feeding materials. Snail farming is easy to combine with other farming activities and it also improves the protein need of human being.
The value of animal protein in human diet is to improves the nutrition and health of most people all over the world. Protein as a food substance is vital for health repairs of worn out tissues and repairs of body tissue. The high cost of other protein sources such as eggs, meat and fish have forced majority of people into utilizing less quantitative protein from cereals and pulses.
For a human being to grow well, balanced diet is needed i.e. the diet must have certain percentage of carbon hydrate, protein, fat and oil, water, minerals, vitamins and fibre.
Lack of balanced food in the diet leads to malnutrition which has been identified as one of the factors affecting the health of most people in developing countries including Nigeria (Akinnusi 1998).
(Otschoe 1995) comparing the effects of lack of protein in the diet of animal and humans state that “experiment with laboratory animals showed that diets containing low level of protein, or protein of poor quality during gestation (birth) and lactation (milking) causes the production of offspring which are inferior and stunted in growth, they exhibit behavioral abnormalities and have a decreased capacity for learning”.
Snail is a very good source of animal protein for human diet with low capacity intensity and less labour
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Since snail meat is rich in protein which makes it to compare favorably withy other protein sources therefore the study is designed to know the effect of stock population density on the growth rate of snail. Especially if it is our goal to supply large quantities for commercial business. This project work will also provide information on the effect of stocking density, pest and disease, causes of mortality, cannibalism and abnormal shell formation.
1.3 IMPORTANCE OF SNAIL FARMING
Snail meat tastes good and it is also good for the body. It serves as a special delicacy in the diet.
In addition to the high level of protein and iron, snail meat also contains high level of calcium and phosphorus. It is low in fat and cholesterol.
Snail shells are used for the manufacture of the buttons, rings ornament and jewellery. For house decorations a in flower pots, drinking cups. Snails shell remains as fossils and its visceral is used as baits by the fishermen in fish farming.
Research studies have confirmed the usefulness of snails in the treatment of some human diseases as a result of certain substance found in snails. Snail meat is low in sodium, fat and cholesterol, but contains high amount of protein, iron and calcium hence it is useful in the treatment of Aeteriosclerosis, Aneamia, hypertension, high blood pressure and other fat related ailments even found to be useful in curing Asthma and poor eye sight. It helps to reduce haemorrhoids and constipation.
In traditional African medicine, snail meat is used in the preparation of concentration for various cases such as reduction of labour pains and blood loss in a pregnant woman during delivery preparation of love medicine to restore peace between husband and wife among wives in polygamous houses.
1.4 SNAIL FARMING
Snail farming site can be close to ones house, so that one can keep close watch and cater for the snails and also protect them from natural enemies. The giant African or West African Snails are:
Achachatina marginata (Swamson) so called in Nigeria. The giant snail in Ghana is taken to mean Archatina achatina (linner) and in East Africa is referred to as Achatina fulica (Bohich) are acceptable for human consumption in Africa.
Extensive System: This system could be rearing the snail in an enclosed compound/farm area. It could be of any convenient area, but a manageable size of about 5m x 5m is quite ideal.
The area is planted with food shelter plant and fenced round. The fence may be made of or blocks, wood bamboo, slabs wire or nylon mesh, galvanized or metal sheetswoven mats or polythene sheets. The materials to be used will depend on available capital. Flabs should be attached to the tops of the fence to prevent the snails from escaping.
Intensive system: With this system, the snails are managed intensively in terms of food and water supply and other management practices. Intensive system utilizes small space. Examples of intensive housing system are cages (hutch box), fenced pens, trench pens drums or pots an tier for types. (Amusan and Omidiji, 1998).
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following research hypothesis are made as the bases of the work.
- Snail is one of the major protein source in the diet.
- Snail are cheep feeding and locally available feeding materials.
- Overcrowding of snail could lead to cannibalism and abnormal shell formation.
- Overcrowding of snail can cause mortality
- Snail forming does not constitute any nuisance to the environment, the dropping are generally firm, odourless, easily cleared and cleaned.
1.6 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study is to determine the effect of stock population density on the growth rate of snail, hence the specific objectives includes the following: to
- Asses the growth performance especially if they are densely stocked
- Know how to improve on soil farming to meet the demand of increasing population
- Know the cause of mortality on snail farming to meet the demand of increasing population
- Integrate snail farming on large scale bases into other existing farming activities.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE PROBLEMS
The best soil for snail farming are sandy loam soil that drains well. Such soil allows snails to dig easily into them in order to rest and lay their eggs. When the soil has too much clay, the snails are not able to dig into it. Also clay soil dries up and becomes too hard for snail farming because they do not hold enough moisture for the development of snails eggs.
It best to site snail pens or paddocks in an area protected from strong winds because strong wind can dry up plants and snails and slow down development. Snails are preyed upon by enemies e.g. Man, Rats, Beetles, some ants, frogs, toads, birds. It is therefore, important to site snail paddock in areas where control of predators and enemies will be easy.
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